.. but the truth is a greater friend than Plato


Hellenism and its near past.

What is Hellenism?

You get plenty of definitions about this word; it’s been labeled: an “esthetic movement”, “the Greek people and their culture”, “the academic study of ancient Greece”, or even “the proper use of the Greek language”.


Studying the definition of this word is worth considering since is only by refuting doing that it could be used on developing a far fetched propaganda, whose Hellenism is the foundation.   The strange thing is that you never get a definition what Hellenism really is: an ideology.

The Hellenism embodies a hypothesis (now on “widely accepted”) for the natural connection between mysterious Ancient Greek race and  today’s population of the so called Modern Greeks.   This ideology was created around 18-19th century with the sole purpose: developing a new national conscience over people who were living in a territory “academically” described by some western scholars as the land of the “Ancient Greeks”.  


The unusual thing with it, is that this ideology was never been created by its own people (the so called Hellenes) elite, as expected to be. This was created from foreigners, and the Francophile puppet Adamantios Korais, motivated by Great Powers interest especially by British and French.  Like any other ideology Hellenism has been used as a far fetched propaganda without absolutely any ground but very powerfully supported by different subjects, whose interest was spreading this tale.


No common so-called Hellene knew about their ancestry, until they were taught about this. A forgotten history of an almost mythical race, was carefully picked, elaborated to be credible and then written by the foreigners. The people living in modern Greece were literally told what they didn’t know they were. These people were told to embrace the new artificially created reality, to forget their present that was anything, but Hellenic. This population composed from people of many ethnically origins like Albanian, Vlach, Slavic, Turkish etc were taught (sometime forcibly) how to speak the language based on the so-called Koine (which means common Greek[???]), a semi-artificial supposedly ancient language, spoken only by  some high ranking Christian Church clergy and a small minority of Christian educated.  


Choosing the character of newly created nation was done along with the establishment of the Modern Greece state territories, which would coincide as much as possible the spooky Ancient Hellene’s  ones.

So everything was set to match those in the past:


  1. the name (Hellenes)
  2. the language
  3. the territories

The creators of this ideology knew that the appearance (name, imposed language, territories) somehow communicates the essence (the ethnicity), so once the Hellenic national conscience created among these people the mission was completed.  Using people’s ignorance, absence of other nation’s states, and supported by the local orthodox clergy, France and England successfully completed the transition from one reality to a false one, which would suit their political interest. Thus Modern Ellada was created to be a continuation of the phantomlike Ancient Greece, even though nobody heard from it and its inhabitant since long ago.


Thus despite the very big 2500 years historical gap to join artificially two very different realities, the creators of this tale found the way of giving this tale a credible appearance. This was made possible through the language. The teaching of the ‘church language’ aka Hellenic, was made compulsory in the school system after the independence.  Once the language started being spoken, the evolved Hellenism claimed: our Greek language

had to be no more inferior version of the ancient language. Thus they created the ‘monster’ Katharevousa a perfect imitation of the Attic language mixed with thousand of newly coined words. This language remained official until 1976 and heavily influented the spoken language which was a monster ‘per se’.


But coming up with the new nation from the ground zero resulted in not an easy task, the experiment called “Hellenic national conscience” was not easy to be perceived by the common people, who not only were ethnically different from the intended one, but also were belonging to different religious groups. The “Greekness” concept was nevertheless fitting some brainwashed orthodox community interest, but was completely disfavorable for the Muslims. To surpass this problem, the “Greeks” and their allies have choosen to fight against everyone religiously different from them. Thus they employed a warlike race: Sulliotes, the brigand orthodox Albanian tribe. These people were the first ones who embraced the Hellenism ideology.  Providing military support to them, England and France were aiming the creation of a new ally state, which they could place against Ottomans.  Sulliotes were the first claiming themselves (Filiki Eteria-Nichola Mavrocordatos): ‘a race purely Hellenic’ (????).


It’s obvious that ethnically the Filiki Eteria wasn’t composed from people of a Hellenic descent, but what was forging their ideals in one alone was the religion, the orthodoxy.

From Albanian to Romanian, from Slavic to Turkish they were all orthodox fighting for the creation of an orthodox state.  None of the participants was Greek by descend, they simply couldn’t be, the word ‘Hellenes’ was newly coined, based on a phantomatic idealized past.  These people, in a status of self-hypnosis, claimed they were a race of pure Hellenes.


How was that possible?

Wasn’t the Hellenic race (if it ever existed), a race dying off at least 2000 years ago?

Why was the Albanian-Greek dictionary created then? Why did they need it for?

How come some people of “pure Hellenic blood” and “pure Hellenic tongue” need  to learn a ““foreign”” language like Albanian?





Marko Boēari’s Greek-Albanian Dictionary


Were they really of ‘pure Hellenic blood’ descending?

It might be easy for them to believe in their own lies, but it’s just a story of low credibility for us, thinking it comes from people’s mouth who coined the word xenophobia.  These people must not forget that the “Filiki Etaria” initiation level was called αδελφοποιητοί (brothers) in the newly adopted language (Greek), but along with that these people were using the word βλάμηδες (vllamides), which is the Hellenized plural of the Albanian word Vllam (brother) in their mother tongue.


The truth is that most of the so-called Hellenes didn’t know how to speak Greek. Their natural language was Albanian. That’s why the dictionary was serving for.

Now the question is: Do they have the right to create a national ideology like most other nations do?   This sort of question could be placed for any national ideology, but the Hellenism is the most notorious non-realistic among them.


Hellenism as ideology being not solid at all, because it is based only on mythical accounts, tends to discriminate anything other than Hellenic, other people histories and interests.  They must understand that even if the Hellenism ever existed, now it’s not its time.  Hellenism is not theirs (Modern Greeks); the Hellenism belongs to the Ancient Hellenes, if they ever existed, to start with.


The neo-Hellenism can not represent a continuation of the Classical one, it simply uses the name as a cover for the diabolic purposes of its creators.  Both tend to influence upon and against other people and cultures but the Neo-Hellenism is completely different from Classical one which used to be an ‘ideology’ of the esthetics, at least among art’ historians .  The Neo-Hellenism is the ideology of assimilation, changing the ethnic affiliation using the most unscrupulous methods. The ultimate aim of the Hellenism is the creation of the Greek homogeneous nation. They are trying to homogenise in one alone the ethnic mixture of the Greek population (with different backgrounds), because of the panic from a possible discovery of their non-Hellenic roots, and the falsity of the Hellenic account.

Nowdays the “”purity”" of the race is being ”guaranteed” by the hand of the Greek Government in cooperation with Orthodox Church . Greece is now the only country in Europe with not-claimed ethnic minorities(!!!). 


The Neo-Hellenism must not be its continuation, because otherwise anyone of them would nomore represent the values we believed on.  The Modern Greeks are not descendent of the Ancient ones; theirs is a tale, a beautiful one, but unfortunately not true.

Everything culturally valuable the Modern Greeks possess cannot compete with those of the Ancient Hellenes (if they really represent the ancient population of that land). They don’t possess that cultural potential, which was so obvious and radiant at the ancient inhabitant of their land, if they really have been called Hellenes. The cultural heritage of the Modern Greeks today  totally belongs to their neighbours especially to the Albanians. 


The eagerness of the Modern Greeks for new territories, encouraged few centuries ago from the Great Powers based on the Hellenism ideology shows the opposite of this gleamy culture.  The truth is that their intention is not capturing of new territories,but  they are desperate to preserve those ones already acquired at the time of the excessive refreinless greed of taking somebody’s else possession (After the independence)


Now is the time for them to face the pure truth that not longer than two centuries ago their Albanian (and other minorities) grandparents consciously believed on the tale of  Ancient Greeks, finding it very suitable for their hate against muslim population.


The Hellenism was spiritually created by the network of Greek-speaking merchants – (Thessalonica, Smyrna, Constantinople, & inland) and Orthodox clergy but academically supported by western scholars. Schools were established teaching Greek language, and the “”Greek character and culture”” under Turkish rule with their strange tolerance.

But a creation of the Greek state wasn’t an issue, at that time.

The main internal reason for the creation of the new state was the Greek speaking merchant class aspiration for a greater share of political power.

It was through this Greek speaking merchant class that the Turkish Muslim World was making all the trade affairs especially with the western countries. But since these “”Greeks”” was paying most of their commercial profits as a tax toward the Ottoman Empire, that made them hostile against the empire.

This merchant class (the core of the Greek nation) would have needed an ideological foundation, a sense of nationhood to share a greater political powers and possibly to create an independent state. That was the reason why Hellenism was created.

The creation of the new nation was fully supported by the Great Powers, so when the Greek revolution broke out in 1821, the first thing the “”Greeks”” did was to address the European states and Russia, proclaiming the independence of the phantasmatical Greek nation, and the creation of the new state to become inherent even before military victories made it apparent. It’s a fact that on the ground no military victories brought about Greek independence.

The “””Greek’”” ethnicity was illusory, phantasmatical, non-existent, but ironically they had Great Powers support. That was the reason it was made a fact despite the fact that militarily Sultan overpowered them in most of the cases. It was the politics blowing the winds in the Hellenism favour not a real renaissance of the Hellenic consciousness

On the other hand the interest of the Greek speaking merchants, orthodox intellectuals and Orthodox Church became diabolically alter in a movement for nationalism. It took an international character which gradually won over the ottoman possibility to hold the status quo. That movement was helped by Albanian Ali Pasha’s rebellion against Sultan. The “”Greeks”” took advantage of the Ali Pasha tolerance towards them and their activities, and so they joined forces with completely different purposes between them.

Sultan overpowered Ali Pasha and the “” Greeks””, but the Great Powers had decided on independence & they simply imposed it and with it the symbiotic ideology Hellenism.

Since then much ink has been spilled, writing about the Hellenism claiming it an ideal cultural movement, but it’s not, at least not the modern one. The Hellenism now is merely a chauvinistic movement. The reasons are not far to seek and the memories of the atrocities caused from the people who fought in the name of this ideology are still fresh. They start on the 19-th century which is the crucial starting point for the Hellenic nation. Although the roots of the Hellenic nations don’t go beyond that time, considerable efforts is made to develop the “ancient Hellenic” ethnogennesis theory ever since.

But now it’s the time to disclose the true character of the Hellenism. The Hellenism is the ideology of the newest race in the Balkan: the Greeks.

Although the conviction among most of  today’s scholars that the Modern Greek language represent some kind of a ‘undiluted’ dialect of the Ancient one, nobody amongst them is disclosing evidences about the ways this language followed up to reach the mouth of the Modern Greek speakers. The truth is that it came through all the ‘paths’ but the family hearth. Through many millenniums, from Peloponnesus to Danube and wider, it was another language which has never stopped to be spoken in the family hearth, this is now called Albanian language and it’s eventually the same with the so called Ancient “”Greek””, which for my opinion was the language of the Pelasgians.

 If the Hellenism its a term used to represent the Greeks and their language then Hellenism is not Ancient at all, because the Greeks are a new nation and their tongue is an artificial imaginative recreation of  the ancient and medieval language, and it is the main component on the efforts to manipulate the history.    


In considering whether the Modern Greek language is a natural descendant of the Ancient one, I have complete confidence in replying in the negative. I have many reasons thinking this.

Although Modern Greek language is often credited or it often ‘credits' itself, being a Hellenic dialect continuously spoken in the Greek family hearths, generation after generation, it doesn't look to me it really happened. It was another place where this language has been continuously spoken: the Church.

Yes it's been spoken from a limited number of middle class orthodox believers Ottoman families ,  of some high ranking Christian Church clergy and a very small minority of Christian educated [in the best case since the Byzantine Church artificially adopted the Koine (and not the Attic, like some people like to say) language for liturgic purposes. Other than that no one spoke Greek before Greece was a country .

The Koine itself was a semi artificial language, and was spread to the East mostly for liturgics and political and comercial purposes, and never represented the original language of the Hellenes, like it never represented the Hellenes themselves.

The exorbitant fantasy of the theory in which the Modern Greeks are (mostly self-claimed) the descendent of the Delphi religious group (Hellenes), unfortunately is matching no evidence at all.

I have noticed that the theory of the linear descent from Ancient Hellenes  is told and pathetically defended by some people who pretend to be Hellenes, but by all the definition cannot be Hellenes, at least linguistically and genetically.

The similarity between Modern Greek and written Ancient Greek language is considered a mere fact that the former one is just a dialect of the Hellenic. So they believe or try to convince us that besides speaking the Hellenic language, they are the Hellenes themselves. I believe even they would have a difficult time proving both things at once, and I noticed the futility of this excessive fanaticism is pulling unpurposely the two ideas in opposite directions. Another way of phrasing it would be that the excessive propaganda of Greek nationalism-racism has not the same impact as 200 years ago, in the time of western philhellenes.

I cannot, of course, bring on table an entire ‘ocean' of proofs against this theory, but I will flood it with the ‘water' of an entire ‘sea' of evidences.

The second thing to observe in this regard is that we must look beyond the border of the "Greek world". There is a nation there often ignored, neglected where we might find the ‘key', answering the unsolved questions of what we are looking for. This country is called Albania, their people being called Albanians.

May be these people represent now the ruins of a splendid civilization, but their language stands above with all the splendor of the ancient times. This language is called Albanian, the language of the people with perhaps most unknown history in Europe. 

It's always been  used by the Albanians, generation after generation the word: te parėt tanė, which literally means: OUR FOREFATHERS, predecessors, ancestors.

Linguistically, it is the definite plural of the i pare that means first. We all know that this numeral which may show itself as a noun, adjective or adverb has an astonishing similarity in all European languages. But the difference between Albanian word i pari=ancestor:

English (3 entries.)

  Shqip (3 hyrje.)


  i/e parė (tr. shq. i pari)


English (2 entries.)

  Shqip (2 hyrje.)

ancestors (plural of ancestor)



Paraardhės,paraardhėse, i pari

 from the ancient Greek word is only on the suffix

This Albanian numeral when used as a preposition becomes para or PRE, in other languages Latin (prae), English (pre), old French (prae) and new French (pre), old Hellenic and new Byzantine Greek (προ-protos) meaning before.     

For example: Prepayment, Premedical, and Prehistoric

Now the word prehistoric itself, which is used to describe the events before the known history, is not exactly the same with the word ancient, because not everything ancient is prehistoric, the opposite is true.

In Albanian the word ancient is translated:

English (3 entries.)

  Shqip (3 hyrje.)


  i/e lash

This adjective derives from the verb lash= left behind

English (9 entries.)

  Shqip (9 hyrje.)

  leave (p.t., p.p. left)

  lė (kr. thj., pj. lashė, lėnė)

Lets have a look at the Ancient ""Greek"" adjective:

Like easily been seen the word is  πα-λαί  and it is pronounced pale

The word πα-λαί  (pale) is a compound "" Greek"" word from the Albanian:  para(before) and i lash(left).

English (Only one entry.)

  Shqip (Vetėm njė hyrje.)


  {mė) pa

 It's been explained before, that the word pare of the Albanian language, has already some very similar cognates in other European languages, but contrary to them, it has an originator verb which in the other languages doesn't exist, the verb PRIN:

English (2 entries.)

  Shqip (2 hyrje.)

  lead (p.t., p.p. led)

  prij (kr. thj., pj. priva, prirė)

  Which when used for the predecessors makes

English (Only one entry.)

  Shqip (Vetėm njė hyrje.)


  paraprirės / paraprirėse, paraardhės / paraardhėse

Do we have this word in the Ancient Hellenic?

Yes we do:

This word in Albanian has many derivates and among those is the word PRINES=prijės,

English (3 entries.)

  Shqip (3 hyrje.)


  prijės / prijėse

And princ which has its cognate in English, and almost in every European language:

English (Only one entry.)

  Shqip (Vetėm njė hyrje.)


  princ {m}

 I will let the ‘well-known' linguists to decide why an Albanian noun which conspicuously is derived from an unical Albanian verb having the European cognates so identical to it.

But the semantic of the Ancient Greek word is even more interesting.

 Its obvious that leader=prince, but for some people to know is the fact that the word egjemon derives from an Albanian verb e gjėmon=to follow.

For the first word Leader the semantic is: following, finding ( e gjėmon= follows.)

This word Leader derives from the verb lead:

Which itself derives from the Albanian verb

English (5 entries.)

  Shqip (5 hyrje.)

  find (p.t., p.p. found)

  gjej (kr. thj., pj. gjeta, gjetur)


That's why Leader in Albanian is a person who leads=find the way

English (3 entries.)

  Shqip (3 hyrje.)


  prijės / prijėse


  udhėheqės / udhėheqėse


English (5 entries.)

  Shqip (5 hyrje.)

  bring close, bring closer

  afroj, qas (kr. thj., pj. qasa, qasur)

  close up (verb)

  afroj, afrohem

  near (verb)

  afroj, afrohem


of the tate = father (king throne)

English (4 entries.)

  Shqip (4 hyrje.)


  atė {m}, tatė {f}, baba {m}

This in plural makes:

English (4 entries.)

  Shqip (4 hyrje.)


atėr{m}, etėr {m},  baballarė {m}

 And in Ancient """Greek"""

English (2 entries.)

  Shqip (2 hyrje.)


 i pari, i lashti

 Has spoken it before:

English (4 entries.)

  Shqip (4 hyrje.)


  para, para se, pėrpara se


English (Only one entry.)

  Shqip (Vetėm njė hyrje.)


  paraprij (kr. thj., pj. parapriva, paraprirė


 μνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος,
the rage of Achilles the son of Peleus sings goddess

The word μνιν(anger, madness) is  (mēnin), fury, rage, or wrath, madness.

This word for some ‘strange' reasons is fully present in Albanian in every dialect.

English (6 entries.)

  Shqip (6 hyrje.)

anger (noun)

  mėri {f}, tr.sh. mėria {f}

anger (noun)

  zemėrim {m}

rage (noun)

  zemėrim {m}


  ēmenduri {f}

Lets make a table of this word in its declension in the two main Albanian dialects:

Case/Definite English Tosk/Alb Gheg Alb
Nominal the anger meria mėnia
Genitive   i/e/te/se mėrisė i/e/te/se mėnisė
Dative   mėrisė mėnise
Accusative   mėrinė mėnin
Ablative   prej mėrisė prej mėnisė

Rhotacism - Gheg has n where Tosk has r.

This is exactly the word μῆνιν, which comes to us after thousands of years untouched in its accusative case of the noun. 

The other synonim zėmėrim is just the a compound word zė(sieze, take)+mėria(anger).

The word mėnia is not a Greek loan in Albanian. It's a basic word in Albanian and exactly the word menja(mendja):

English (11 entries.)

  Shqip (11 hyrje.)

  mind (noun)

  mendje {f} , tr.sh mendja {f}

and beside the noun mendja comes in a full "set" of important speech parts in the Albanian language, like verb, adjective, adverb etc

English (5 entries.)

  Shqip (5 hyrje.)

  think (p.t., p.p. thought)
  mendoj, mendohem

Everyone knows that the madness, anger, rage is a mental state when the people loose their mind:

out of one's mind

  i/e ēmendur

anger (noun)

  mėri, zemėrim {m}

This is the time when the angry person memorizes the event. 

This is the reason why in Albanian is said vuri ne menje(mendje)-memorized

That's why in Ancient Greek is been used the same word as in Albanian today:

The Albanian word mendja is used by some "Ancient" "Greek" individuals naming some of their babies Mentor (Μέντωρ / Méntōr) which in Albanian means smart, intelligent and capable to be a teacher and adviser:

English (4 entries.)

  Shqip (4 hyrje.)


  i/e menēur

And derives from an other Albanian adjective:

English (2 entries.)

  Shqip (2 hyrje.)


  i/e menduar


  i/e menduar, i/e mendueshėm

There is no doubt that Μέντωρ=mendur=menduar, like is out of any doubt that the antonym is crazy=ē-mendur=ē-menduar.

English (6 entries.)

  Shqip (6 hyrje.)


  i/e ēmendur

This is the word who named Mars -the God of madness in War the counterpart of the ""Greek" God Ἄρης [į.rὲεs]. Mars is portrayed as a mad warrior God eager for quarrel and squabble. That's why in Albanian is used:

English (6 entries.)

  Shqip (6 hyrje.)


  i/e marrė


  i/e marrosur


  ēmenduri {f}, marrėzi {f}

Which literally means taken from the basic Albanian verb marr=take.

Now I am not saying anymore that it's still a mere insanity to believe in Hellenic continuity to the Modern Greeks, but this is a theory without ground, with a false foundation:

English (2 entries.)

  Shqip (2 hyrje.)


  themelim {m}


  themel {m} (shumės themele)

Without base:

English (4 entries.)

  Shqip (4 hyrje.)

  base (noun)

  bazė {f}

  base (verb)

  bazohem (kr. thj.,. u bazova, )

The "tyrannical" idea that every nation is now living in its own paternal ancient homeland its not realistic at all especially in regards to the Modern Greeks, who are a large multinational comunity without a Hellenic core in them, who have existed and exist only inside nationalistic fantasy. The ""overwhelming mere fact"" of their long Hellenic history brought from Greek propaganda, is  apparently  based on false foundation. Their descendace from the mythic Ancient Hellenes is a proveably unproveable theory

Zeus10 13.oct.2008



Many people have tried to explain the meaning of the word Pelasgoi or Pelasgian. We already know the inhabitants of Pelasgia ( Argos capital) were called Danaioi(Argives)  were named after their king Danaus.


In the historical sources, the Danuna are known by many different names such as Denyen, Danunites, Danaoi, Danaus, Danaids, Dene, Danai, Danaian.

These were the same people who attacked Troy and wrongly considered by the historiography as Hellenes(Greeks).

Danaus, or Danaos ( Δαναός), was a mythological character, twin brother of Aegyptus and son of Achiroe and Belus, a mythical king of Egypt. The myth of Danaus is a foundation legend of Argos, one of the foremost Mycenaean cities of the Peloponnesus. In Homer’s Iliad, “Danaans” (”tribe of Danaus”) and “Argives” commonly designate the “””””Greek””””” forces opposed to the Trojans.


Evidently Argeoi, Pelasgjoi, Danaidai, Mykenaoi, Argives, Pelasgos, Pelasgjikos, Pelasgjia, Argolis are interchangeable for each other. They represent the same people and land, the Pelasgians of Peloponnesus originally from Egypt. 

They inhabited a vast territory, mainly Peloponnesus and Epirus. That was the situation before the arriving of the real “Greeks” the Hellenes (Dorians). It’s logical that these Hellenes were just next to the Pelasgians (Danaoi, Argives, and Achaeans) before, and then subdued them. In other words they were neighbors to each other.

Being so, it’s normal that they could have been called our neighbor, by the Hellenes.

Let’s take a look at the word neighbor:


It’s evident that pelas means neighbor, and


gjė or gja means land.

Thus PELASGIA literally means the land adjacent ours, or the neighbor land.

So Pelasgians are the neighbor of the Hellenes (Dorians or Heraclites, an Illyric nation)

Like we can see pelas is not the first correspondent word for the neighbor. The exact correspondent word is GEITON which is pronounced gjiton.

This pronunciation is totally the same with the Albanian word:

English (3 entries.)

  Shqip (3 hyrje.)

  neighbour, neighbor

  gjiton / gjitone

  neighbour, neighbor

  fqinj / fqinje

  neighbour, neighbor

  komshi / komshie (shumės komshinj)

The natural question would be: “Is the above word a loan from Greek”?

No. The Albanian word gjiton derives from the adverb ngjitur (in the Gheg dialect ngjit which means near, close by, adjacent to and/or from the adjective e ngjitur which is the same thing.

English (18 entries.)

  Shqip (18 hyrje.)


  i/e ngjitur, afėr

The very source of this word is the Albanian verb ngjis:

Attach, close up, bring close to, bring near

  ngjis (kr. thj., pj. ngjita, ngjitur)

Do we have the correspondent word in ancient “Greek”. Yes we do


The word εγγύς is pronounced engjis.

Its obvious that the source of the word is the Albanian verb e ngjis which forms the place adverb ngjitur or ngjit(in gheg) or ngjitun(in gheg).

English (3 entries.)

  Shqip (3 hyrje.)

near (adverb)

  Pranė, ngjitur

near (adverb)

  Afėr, ngjitur

next, next to

  ngjitur, ngjitur me

What is a neighbor?



1. One who lives near or next to another.

2. A person, place, or thing adjacent to or located near another.


To lie close to or border directly on.


To live or be situated close by.


Situated or living near another


The Ancient Greek language is always seen as a separate branch of IE languages.

That is not true. The truth is as the following:

  1. The Ancient Greek is not the language of the Hellenes
  2. The Ancient Greek is the language of the Pelasgians.
  3. The Ancient Greek is the language of the Pelasgian group of Egypt.
  4. Hellenes have spoken originally an Illyrian dialect.
  5. Ancient Greek (Pelasgian language) and Illyrian language have the same source (probably the later could be the source of the former).
  6. Most of the Hellenes lost their original language.
  7. The language of the literature(Attic, Ionic) is a conventional one its not the spoken language.
  8. Unlike most of the beliefs that language of the Hellenes evolved in the today Modern Hellenic, I strongly believe that the later one is artificial bastard imitation and morphologically unable to explain the former.
  9. Graicoi is not the same with Hellenes, Aristotle is definitely wrong.
  10. Graicoi are a mix Semitic-Thracian tribe while Hellenes an Arian migration.
  11. Hellenes represent the vanguard of the south Illyrian tribes returning back in the Peloponnesus which was their land before the invasion of the Egyptian Pelasgians.

Ancient Greek or Albanian??


What  is the language used to write the following pages? The Greek? 


Lets translate one of them:

32> E si perendoi Dielli e u err, prune te ai gjithe te semuret e dhe te dhamnshurit.

32> After the sunset and as soon as the darkness  fell, all the beloved and the sick people were brought to him.


Zeus10, May 10. 2008



Since Ventris “”deciphered”” the Mycenian Scripts nobody was interested anymore for developing some thorough study in the already “known” languages like for ex. Ancient “”Greek””.

Now people who study  the grammar and orthography of the Ancient Greek language is very familiar with certain signs placed over the initial vowel in different words. The linguists already know the meaning of them like ā or ă placed over alfa. According to the linguists they show either a long vowel or a short one. They “explain” also some other strange marks(diacritic marks) meaning: “the signs placed above the initial vowel indicate the presence of an aspirated sound or the absence of an additional sound”. They are called breathings. In other words breathings always occur over the first vowel sound of a word, and are either hard or soft.


They are indicated by either a ' or a ` over the first vowel. The former (hard) indicated an aspirated vowel (in other words, pronounce the word as if it began with an English "h" sound. The latter (soft) means there is no "h" sound, and simply pronounce the word as written (Oxcord University Press. ISBN 0-19-514956-4)

Lets look at them:   



Aspirate or rough breathing: a sign placed over an initial vowel or initial rho to indicate an initial h-sound



Thus among the scientists is very popular the thought that because of that mark the above words are pronounced helios and hodos. To justify that they give the following explanation:


In the old Attic alphabet Η or heta represented the h-sound. In the Ionic alphabet, the same symbol represented a vowel, eta, because the Ionic dialect had lost aspirations and had no need for heta.


This explanation could be true but it proves exactly the opposite, that because the lost of aspiration the initial vowel doesn’t need an additional aspirated h-sound. It might indicate the presence of another voiceless consonant  before the vowel but never of the h-sound.

Unlike the Attic Greek the Ionic and Aeolic the aspirated h-sound before the initial is totally missing and so they don’t need to insert the sign in writing anymore because it doesn’t correspond the speaking.

I think that the sign doesn’t show the presence of  aspirant h-sound but the presence of the semi-vowel ‘j’.


not helios~~~~~~~~~~~but~~~jelios

not hodhos~~~~~~~~~~but~~~jodhos

not hyllos~~~~~~~~~~~but~~~jyllos

not hellen~~~~~~~~~~~but~~~jellen


For example the albanian verb jap=give



Even today in Cam dialect(old Thesprotian language):

 instead of Helen they use (J)elin, instead of (h)Yll(star) they use (j)ill.


Worthy to mention that the Ancient “”Greek”” word for the Horse:


is not pronounced hipos despite the fact that it derives from albanian verb tė hipėsh.


 jump on, jump into

  hipi (kr. thj., pj. hipa, hipur)


but j’ipos which is the short form of the Albanian ia(ja) ipėsh.

the verb hip in Albanian is the synonim of the word kaloj.

ja hipi=ja kaloj=kėrcej= jump on



  kalė {m} (tr. shq. kali, shumės kuaj)





The other sign which is the  mirror sign of the above and according them:




Smooth breathing: a sign placed over an initial vowel to indicate the absence of aspiration; hence, no additional sound



…to indicate the absence of an additional sound  ??????


If so why does the writter need to insert an extra sign above the vowel when simply could let without it?

Because the sign doesn’t mean absence of aspirated sound but the presence of something else.


To answer this question lets look at the following short dictionary:




What we easily understand is that indicates un or without. That means that is privative preposition equivalent to the English un(without).


Now lets have a look to the Albanian language:


  English (99 entries.)

  Shqip (99 hyrje.)




  pa pėrzemėrsi, pa kėnaqėsi

unlikely (adverb)

  pa tė ngjarė (ndajfolje)


  pa qenė nevoja (ndajfolje)


  palidhur, pa lidhje (mbiemėr)


  pa mend (mbiemėr




  papjekuri {f}


I think, the sign above a indicates exactly the voiceless p before the word.


Ancient Greek:





  pyll {m}



Ancient Greek




  i/e panjohur


Ancient Greek



virgin (adjective)

 e paqirė, e paqira(tr.shq)



Ancient Greek





  English (Only one entry.)

  Shqip (Vetėm njė hyrje.)

  jobless, unemployed

  i/e papunė, pa punė


Ancient Greek



  English (Only one entry.)

  Shqip (Vetėm njė hyrje.)


  pamėsuar, paarsimuar


Lets look to a complete sentence




 as soon as

  sapo, porsa, posa

as far as. . ., as far as. . . is concerned. . .

  pėrsa. . ., pėrsa qe i pėrket. . .


Now at the end lets look at a very familiar word in modern greek:

up(english)-------- (ε)πάνω


In ancient Greek we have :



It obvios that νω is pronounced pano and this adverb derives from the participle of the Albanian verb see(seen) which is parė or panė(gheg dialect).


rhotacism - Gheg has n where Tosk has r


English (7 entries.)

  Shqip (7 hyrje.)

  see (verb, p.t., p.p. saw, seen)

  shoh (kr. thj., pj. pashė, parė), shof


The reason why the word up in Ancient “”Greek”” derives from the word panė(seen) has to do with the simple fact that the objects which are in higher positions are usually easily visible because there is no other things in betwen to ostacle the sight.


In  the Gheg dialect which is the mother-language of the An.Greek(Pelasgians) language  the verb inflection  is different from the standart language:

Standart                                                 Gheg                                                Standart

une shoh   (I see)                                 une phana                                         une pashe      (I saw)

ti sheh        (you see)                             ti   phane                                           ti    pe            (you saw)

ai sheh        (he sees)                            ai  phani                                            ai   pa            (he saw)

In Gheg Albanian the root of the word remains the same.

νω is the Albanian word  i/e panė which means visible.



φ in Ancient “Greek” represented [pʰ]


This is the reason why the Albanian word for invisible i/e papʰare



  i/e padukshėm / i/e padallueshėm / i/e paparė


 is the same with Ancient Greek word.



After these undeniable facts about orthography, phonetic and grammar of the Ancient “”Greek”” we must say:

Most of Ancient “”Greek”” words are compound words formed from simple primitive words which are inherited and still alive in an  “”another”” language, in the Albanian language.

Why never heard of that?


The ancient history of Europe and Mediteranien is ‘pruned’  from other nations leaving only Greeks and Romans.

This ‘haircut’ of  the history shows only Greeko-Roman look, thus you are led to believe in wrong false things and stories. I hope people who offered us this tabloid didn’t make that on purpose but only because of their ignorance and prejudice. I know they didn’t because they believed the Modern Greeks are the descendents of the ancient ones. Please God forgive them even if they call my study very revisionistic.

Zeus10 , May.6.2008



The people are interested to know the ethymology of the words sometime, or anytime if you are a person who likes the languages and their origin. So it’s natural to open an Etimology Dictionary(usually to take the wrong information). So did we, being interested for the word ethnic, we opened the ONLINE ETYMOLOGY DICTIONARY:



comb. form of Gk. ethnos "people, nation, class" (see ethnic), used to form modern compounds such as ethnology (1842, by J.S. Mill) and ethnocentric, 1900, which was a technical term in social sciences until it began to be more widely used in the second half of the 20th century.


Felt a little bit surprised, because we found nowhere an etymological explanation of the word ethnos(which we already know the meaning, just asked for etymology of the word) we continued our search. So far so good,



c.1375, from Scottish, "heathen, pagan," and having that sense first in Eng., from Gk. ta ethne, used in Septuagint translation to render Heb. goyim, pl. of goy "nation," especially of non-Israelites, hence "Gentile nation." Ta ethne is from Gk. ethnos "band of people living together, nation, people," prop. “people of one's own kind,” from PIE *swedh-no-, suffixed form of base *s(w)e- (see idiom). Sense of "peculiar to a race or nation" is 1851, return to the word's original meaning; that of "different cultural groups" is 1935; and that of "racial, cultural or national minority group" is Amer.Eng. 1945. Ethnicity is from 1953; ethnic cleansing is from 1991.


At this point we are stunned. Ethnos –according to the “proffesional linguists”-derives from PIE *swedh-no-, suffixed form of base *s(w)e.

This ridiculous explanation, like the most of them in the Etymology WORLD (especially those related with “Greek” origin) made us performing a research for the origin of the word ethnos or ta ethne.


We all know that historically all the ethnic groups, all the nations, all the tribes have a common predecessor  or a common father.

Since the word ethne comes from the Ancient “Greek” World(or better saying Pelasgian) we have to show some examples from this World.


The tribe of HERACLIDES was called so because of Heracles(Hercules) their FATHER.

The tribe of AECIDES was called this way because of Aecus(of Aegina) their father, their founder

The tribe of DORIANS was called this form because of Dorus, their founder and predecessor.


The examples are infinite, and we all know the importance of the FATHER during the creation of the ethnic group, the tribe, the race, the nation in the most of IE tribes. The father is at the same time the LIDER and the GENETIC creator.  His sperm is the GENETIC code biologocially descended in the all incoming generations.

Since we are talking about the Ancient “Greeks” lets have a look to the Ancient Greek-English Dictionary to confirm what we said above:




It is obvious that the English words race, tribe, nation correspond to the “Greek” words genos, ethnos, sperma.

The last one denotes the biological relation  of the male, or the father founder with the tribe itself. Let see now how do the Europians today pronounce FATHER, in their respective languages:


πατέρας(new greek)









It is very understandable that the ROOT of this word for all the Europian languages is AT(e). In some of them we have a transformation from t –d but this is very normal since d is the voiced correspondent of the voiceless consonant t.




Also another small difference from language to language is the using of o instead of a in some of them. The truth is that in all of them are using similar vowel 



Open-mid back rounded vowel

pawed 2




Open back unrounded vowel



which actually dont make any essential leksical difference.


Even within Albanian language we have ɔt(gheg) or āt or at(tosk) those two vowels are used to replace each –other in the two main dialects,


Standard form

Tosk form

Gheg form




Shqypni/  Shqipni




nji / njā/ njo








āsht /osht/ ā
















The Albanian atė is very close to the primitive IE root at, not saying it is eventually the same.


English (4 entries.)

  Shqip (4 hyrje.)


  atė {m}, babė {f}, baba {m}

father's name

  atėsi {f} (shumės atėsia)


The word at in Albanian, derives from the interjection ta-ta ~ tat at of the child babble and easily can be considered onomatopeic. The same story is with the preffix pa which is viewed in some of the IE languages word beginning including Ancient Greek:



The greek word is patėr and includes the pa as well.

Like we said above, it is the child babble pa-pa-pa which determines the 'birth' of the word father.

The same thing we could say for ba-ba which is another synonim for father in Albanian language

Now let see how does the plural of AT is in Albanian


Standard form

Tosk form

Gheg form




Shqypni/  Shqipni











Fragment Albanian passport 1935


We explained above that nation or ethnos or patėr (anc. Greek) is the people who are descended from a common father, or better saying common FATHERS, and it appears almost the same with the Albanian word etėn with the only difference that we have  e/ė instead of h.

Now let explain why does occur this “”difference””.


In the old Attic alphabet Η or heta represented the h-sound. In the Ionic alphabet, the same symbol represented a vowel, eta, because the Ionic dialect had lost aspirations and had no need for heta. When the Ionic alphabet was adopted in Athens (2nd half of the 5th cent. B.C.E.), the h-sound was no longer represented in writing.


After this explanation is obvious that the “””greek””” word ethn(ΕΘΝ-ΟΣ) is eventually the Albanian word etėn which  completely describes what ethnos means and why in albanian the homeland is called ATDHE which means AT(father) + DHE(land), The land of the father/fathers.

Inside the veins of Ancient Greeks flows the Albanian blood and vice-verca, the ethnos of the Helenes who spoke eventually the Pelasgian language are the Albanians today. The amnesia{Ἀμνησία~a-menja-zi(alb)-eshte mendja keq} is slowly fading out, because the Fathers are calling from antiquity: Do not forget the history. Do not forget us.





The Knowledge, the boiling Sun, the Sacred Goat, the Day and much more ,all in one Zeus

The names origin and the functions of  the ancient Gods have been always a debatable issue among the linguists, especially because they are related with nacionalistic feeling and the delicate problem of the different people's religions.

Let's analyze some of them.

The God is seen from different cultures as the following:


First let's have a look at the ""Greek"" Mythology for now,

The principal God of the """Greek""" pantheon, ruler of the heavens and father of other gods and mortal heroes.

""Greek"".  dyeu- 

Δι = Zeus,  Ζεῦ= Zeus, Δις στρατου. Unlike our expectations for a Alpha-Declension Noun Masculine the possible declension is

Evidently the root of the word is DI.

The God in any religion is called the most KNOWLEDGEABLE. In Ancient ""Greece"" DIA(ZEUS) was the most powerful God because of that: his/her Knowledge.

English (6 entries.)
  Shqip (6 hyrje.) (ALBANIAN)
 know (p.t., p.p. knew, known)
  di (kr. thj., pj. dita, ditur), e di

English (2 entries.)
  Shqip (2 hyrje.)
  dije {f} (tr.sh. dija)

In Ancient ""Greece""  AMALTHEIA(Αμαλθεια) or AMALTHIA (Αμαλθια) was the she-goat

or the Mountain Godness

. ..τὴν μέν τε λόγος Διὶ μαζὸν ἐπισχεῖν... 

(or, according to some, Nymph ) nurse of the god Zeus who nourished him with her milk in a cave on Mount Ida in Krete .


Standard form Tosk form Gheg form Translation
ėshtė ėshtė āsht /osht/ ā is


English (6 entries.)
  Shqip (6 hyrje.) (ALBANIAN)
  mal {m} (tr. shq. mali, shumės male)


English (Only one entry.)
  Shqip (Vetėm njė hyrje.)(ALBANIAN)
  dhi {f} tr. shq. dhia

She is the mountain goat.

The Zeus himself was called Δα--Dhia

Zeus’ attributes are the eagle (king of birds; Zeus’ messenger) and lightning.

Homer's Iliad calls him “Zeus who thunders on high” and  “the Thunderer,”

Δα δ' ο λθε τερπικραυνον*:


Now let's see where is this place where ZEU 'exhales' his 'anger'.

At the north the region begins with the Acroceraunian mountains, (which the Roman poet Horace mentioned as "infames scopulos Acroceraunia"). Then from the Llogara national park(ALBANIA) the "thunderbolts mountains" (locally called malet e vetetimes) (Iapygie ou Iapourie[malet e laberisė]-Pouqueville).


KERAUNE=ke + ra(u)ne~qe rane=qe rane(bien) vetetimat(rrufete).



 Albanian flag with Zeus the thunderer

 The bird in the middle is a EAGLE.

He [Zeus] made him the eagle  king of all birds and gave him the task of guarding his sacred sceptre.


 Above Albanian flag the helmet of Scanderbeg-Pyrrhus-Alexander all carrying the symbol of sacred GOAT of ZEUS, and Albanian flag with twoheaded Eagle symbol of Zeus (east-west)

 Zeus has been at all the times simbolizing the SUN and  the Indo-European ancestor of Zeus was a God of the bright daytime sky *Dieuo and *deiuo ("the day time, a shining sky") or a sunny day. 


English (Only one entry.)
  Shqip (Vetėm njė hyrje.)(ALBANIAN)


  diell {m}

 DIELLI in Albanian means sun, ZEUS and SUN




 English (5 entries.)
  Shqip (5 hyrje.)
  ditė {f} (tr. shq. dita, shumės ditė)

 The knowledge is definetely related to the word 'day' or 'light' and the source of it is the 'sun' which burns. The opposite of it the ignorance is related with the 'dark' and the 'night'.

dija (knowledge)- dita(day) -drita(light)--dielli(sun)--digjet(burns)


Homer, Iliad 16.200

Ζε να* Δωδωναε Πελασγικ τηλθι ναων

Δωδνης μεδων δυσχειμρου*, μφ δ Σελλο

σο ναουσ' ποφται νιπτποδες χαμαιεναι**,

μν δ ποτ' μν πος κλυες εξαμνοιο*,

τμησας μν μ, μγα δ' ψαο λαν χαιν,

δ' τι κα νν μοι τδ' πικρηνον ἐέλδωρ:

ατς μν γρ γ μενω νην ν γνι**,

λλ' ταρον πμπω πολσιν μετ Μυρμιδνεσσι

"Zeus, king, lord of Dodona, Pelasgian,
you who live far off, ruling cold Dodona,
around whom live the Selli, your prophets, 280
with unwashed feet, who sleep upon the ground,
you heard me when I prayed to you before.
You gave me honour then by striking hard
at the Achaean army. So grant me now
what I still desire. I intend to stay
beside this group of ships, but I'm sending out
my comrade and my many Myrmidons. [240]

In Homer we meet the noun Zeus in its nominal  O Ζεῦ~zeu



Entry in LSJ or Middle Liddell


masc voc sg indeclform

Frequency in other Authors

Greek Word Search



Max. Inst.


Min. Inst.








Greek Texts






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Click on a number in the Freq./10K column for a more detailed frequency table.




to boil, seethe

Entry in LSJ or Middle Liddell or Autenrieth


pres imperat mid/pass 2nd sg doric ionic contr


imperf ind mid/pass 2nd sg doric ionic contr unaugmented

Frequency in other Authors

Greek Word Search



Max. Inst.


Min. Inst.








Greek Texts






Click on a number in the Max. Inst. column to search for this word in that group of texts.

Click on a number in the Freq./10K column for a more detailed frequency table.




English (4 entries.)
Shqip (4 hyrje.)(Albanian)
boil (verb)
boils (he)
ziej (kr. thj., pj. zieva, zier)
zien (ai)

 Zeus is a comletely unusual noun in "Greek", having both a stem Z n–(as in the philosopher Zeno's name) and a stem Di– (earlier Diw–). In the Iliad prayers to Zeus begin with the vocative form Zeu pater, “ Comparative philology has revealed that the “sky” word refers specifically to the bright daytime sky, as it is derived from the root meaning “to shine.” This root also shows up in ""Latin""(which in fact is ALBANIAN (dita) di s “day,” borrowed into English in words like diurnal. Closely related to these words is Indo-European *deiwos “god,”which shows up, among other places, in the name of the Old English god Tiw in Modern English Tuesday, “Tiw's day.” *Deiwos is also the source of Latin d vus “pertaining to the gods,” whence English divine and the Italian operatic diva, and deus, “god,” whence deity.

The truth is that να in Albanian is very similar to nana which means mother(nėnė~nana) or ama.

English (6 entries.)
  Shqip (6 hyrje.)
  nėnė {f}
  mami {m} (tr. shq. mami), mama {f}
  amė {f}, ėmė {f}, mėmė {f}

I strongly beleive that the pre-Dorian ZEUS has been a Goddes called DIONE-Diōnź

Dione was described as "the temple associate" of Zeus at Dodona.


 Zeus in Pelasgian Mythology was a female and Achiles in his prayer made to Zeus was beging the female GOD :  Goddess  DIA .



Homer mentions in the Odyssey an oracle delivered by Apollo upon Parnassus. Besides it must be observed, that at the epoch when the temple of Delphi was founded,, the new cult, presented to the Greeks under the name of the universal Olen, tended to unite Apollo and Diana, or the sun and the moon, under the same symbolic figure, and to make of it only one and the same object of adoration, under the name of Œtolinos, that is to say, Sun-moon

Delphi is in fact the temple of the Sunrise and the Sunset of the SUN(APOLLO) (orienting its axis to align with midsummer sunrise and midwinter sunset) which in Albanian is :.


φ--In Ancient Greek it represented [], an aspirated voiceless bilabial plosive.

is inherited in Albanian language pʰ>p but sometime as bʰ>b which is again a bilabial plosive.


PIE Sanskrit OCS Lithuanian Armenian Greek Latin OIR Gothic Hittite
P P P P H, -W P P --- F, -B P
B B B B P B B B, M, -W- P P
Bh Bh B B B, -W- PH F-. B B, M, -W- B P
T T T T T T T T. -Th TH. -D T
D D D D T D D D, -Dh T T
Dh Dh D D D TH F, D, B D, -Dh D T

The diphtong oi  is reduced in  i  in the modern prononcuation.

After the vowel treatment and other ethymological work we have

DELPHOI~ del+phoi ~del+boi ~ del+bi

Del (alb)----sunrise

bi(e)~bi ( alb)-----sunset

Apollo is often confused with Zeus about the priviledge of being the SUN-GOD.

We already know about an island called DEL-os in cyclades Greece which is called "THE ISLAND OF THE SUN".
The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, is one of the most important mythological, historical and archaeological sites in Greece.

The island is famous for the great numbers of sun-days during the year.

Delos, in Ancient Greek, means clear, brought to light. The beautiful myth states that, Delos, the island of sun, appeared from Amid waves when Leto, who was being pursued by Hera, took refuge there and brought Apollo and Artemis into the world.

The birth of Apollo, the god of sun, on this island, is undoubtedly related to the morphology of Delos.

in greek the word is (h)eli(os)[ήλιος], in albanian (d)ielli basicly the same root.
Apollo was the god of the clear light and the sun.

Also every albanian knows that we have the word ylli=the star is very similar to 'ilios'(h^elios) which is the Greek word for the sun.

In Greek mythology the sun was personified as Helios (pronounced /ˈhiliˌɑs/) (Greek: Ἣλιος,)

English (3 entries.)
  Shqip (3 hyrje.)
  star (noun)
  yll {m} (tr. shq. ylli, shumės yje)

All the above Gods in Albanian were called HYJNI which derives from YJE~stars

English (2 entries.)
  Shqip (2 hyrje.)
hyjni (shumės hyjni), hy {m} (tr. shq. hyu, shumės hyj)

 We all know that the sun is a normal star but differently to the night stars it is seen as the DAY STAR which in Albanian is DIELLI=DI(day)+ELLI(star).

Few paragraphs above we explained that the name DEL-os which is the place where Apollo was 'borned' derives from Albanian verb Del (third person),which describes the SUNRISE

 English (Only one entry.)
  Shqip (Vetėm njė hyrje.)
  arise (p.t., p.p. arose, arisen)
  dal (kr. thj., pj. dola, dalė)

But in Albanian we have another synonim which shows the Sun rising- Dielli lind

English (3 entries.)
  Shqip (3 hyrje.)
  give birth
  lind, pjell (kr. thj., pj. polla, pjellė)

the Albanian verb lind(the sun){ le} is also a possible suggested root of the noun ( Έλλην [ˈelin] Greek:) which literally means people of the sun.

lind and pjell (p.t polla, polli ) are synonims to each-other. This last one is the root of the noun APOLLO.

So APOLLO in Albanian means: He who always arises or is borned. This "primitive" meaning which describes the 'life' of the sun who 'dies' in the evening, and rises (lind-poll) in the morning is very beautiful. It is a good example that the history has not died in the 'shadow' of mount Athos but it is reborned like the sun by the help of the knowledge and our wish for not forgeting the past because we dont want to loose the future. By the way the English verb born derives from Albanian verb bo ( participle borė ) which is gheg dialect of the official bėj,

English (91 entries.)
  Shqip (91 hyrje.)
  do (p.t., p.p. did, done)
  bėj (kr. thj., pj. bėra, bėrė)
  make (p.t., p.p. made)
  bėj (kr. thj., pj. bėra, bėrė)

which is another synonim for the verb lind=born.


The confusion created in certain terminology especially those used in theology and religion is leading the linguists  in the wrong direction sometime. One of them is the word GOD.


God Our Saviour (No. 198) 

The identity of the Saviour is often confused among Christians. The Bible seems to identify both God and Christ as Saviour



What about the Ancient “Greeks”??



Sotėr (“”””Greek””” σωτήρ initial capitalised, Σωτήρ fully capitalised, ΣΩΤΗΡ = saviour) may be used as:

*                   as a title of God: Poseidon Soter

*                   any heroized leaders of Hellenistic dynasties, see hero cult

*                   as a title of liberators : Ptolemy I Soter Antiochus I Soter Demetrius I Soter Menander

*                   a title of Jesus, most particularly in the Pope Soter


Therefore the word sotėr(zotėr) in Ancient Greek , doesn’t mean simply saviour. It means God, Deity, Lord, King etc


What about the Albanian?

English (8 entries.)

  Shqip (8 hyrje.)(ALBANIAN)


  zot {m} (shumės zotėr), perėndi 


  zot {m} (shumės zotėr), perėndi



  tė qenit zot



  zot {m} (shumės zotėr), perėndi



  zot {m}


gentleman (plural gentlemen)

  zotėri {m} (tr. shq. zotėria,zotėrinj)


master (noun)

  zotėri {m}, zotėrues / zotėruese



What a huge coincidence!!!


Therefore in Albanian it means exactly the same thing/s like the Ancient Greek, with only the difference that Z is used instead of S, which of course doesn’t make a mayor difference, since those are equivalent consonants:


Voiceless consonant (surd)

Voiced equivalent

[s] (sip)

[z] (zip)


The noun ZOT himself in Albanian derives from the verb zotėroj


English (5 entries.)

  Shqip (5 hyrje.)


  zotėroj, mbizotėroj

master (verb)


own (verb)




control (verb)




Let look at the word GOD in the dictionary:




How does the God is seen in the ancient times from the """"""Greeks""""""?


The God has been seen as an instructor, a counseler, a divine voice, a speaker of the divine counsel, of the Nature Laws.


Who is the most ancient God of the Divine counsel?

Her name was :




In “””Greek “”” mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis (Greek: Θέμις). Themis (meaning "law of nature" rather than "human ordinance"), she "of good counsel," was the embodiment of divine order, law and custom


In this role, she was the divine voice (themistes) who first instructed mankind in the primal laws of justice and morality, such as the precepts of piety, the rules of hospitality, good governance, conduct of assembly, and pious offerings to the gods.

And of course these instructions/ counseles/ advises/ suggestions is given speaking, saying, reading.




So the the God in Ancient ““Greek”” is seen as a teacher who teachs/says the rules to the humans

Her instructions were SPOKEN,  by SPEECH, or SAYING


English (4 entries.)

  Shqip (4 hyrje.)(ALBANIAN)

  say (p.t., p.p. said)

  them (kr. thj., pj. thashė, thėnė)


The verb inflection in Albanian is :


I say- them                       we say-- themi

you say – thua                      you say-- thoni

 he/she says- thote            they say- thone


And the participle becomes thėnė

In other tenses the inflection is even more radical but always we can find the th in the steam usually followed by a, e, o, or u and then by m, t, or n or even s.

God , a Being with perfect knowledge on all things - is willing to communicate and transmit His knowledge

This word  is the reason why the God in Ancient “Greek” is called Theos because he is somebody who talks/speaks/teachs to the human the laws of the nature.


This word is the reason why the most ancient God of the Egyptians is called THOTI,


THOT the GOD of the Wisdom and Writing



This verb in its participle is the reason that Athena ( θην, Athēnā, or θήνη, Ath) which is the correspondant God of the Wisdom

English (6 entries.)

  Shqip (6 hyrje.)

  say (p.t., p.p. said)

  them (kr. thj., pj. thashė, thėnė)


  thėnie {f}, e thėnė {f} (emėr)


Athene the God of Wisdom , Philosophy  Speech


as  Philosophy who was delivering to the humans her Wisdom and the LAWS of the Nature and Philosophy through her SPEECH:

English (3 entries.)

  Shqip (3 hyrje.)

  law (noun)



  ligjėratė {f}


1. Flas; flas bukur. Ligjėro, bilbili ynė. kr. pop. Ligjėron bukur. Ligjėron shqip. Ligjėronin me zė tė ulėt. Nuk i ligjėron goja.
2. kal. Lexoj ose e them pėrmendėsh e bukur njė pjesė artistike pėrpara tė tjerėve, recitoj; vjet. lexoj. Ligjėroi njė vjershė.
3. Mbaj njė ligjėratė a fjalim pėrpara njė grupi tė madh dėgjuesish.
4. Shqyrtoj njė ēėshtje pėr tė nxjerrė nė shesh tė drejtėn; e kuvendoj, e pleqėroj.
E kishte zgjedhur fshati pėr tė ligjėruar.
5. vet. veta III fig. Kėndon a cicėron bukur (pėr disa zogj); shushurin a fėshfėrin ėmbėl. Ligjėron bilbili (kryeartėza). Ligjėron lumi. Ligjėrojnė gjethet (drurėt).
* I ligjėron zemra ėshtė shumė i gėzuar, i kėndon zemra.


We also have the word λογος (logos) which means "word". In Greek philosophy, the Logos was the "rational principle"(LAWS) responsible for order in the Universe.


thēnā literatelly means PATHENA= Not said (would be explained another time)


The Nature Laws in antiquity were proclaimed said or red  from the Gods/Prophets in their speechs/readings.





Which in Albanian has survived in the word:


  English (2 entries.)

  Shqip (2 hyrje.)

  read (p.t., p.p. read)

  lexoj (kr. thj., pj. lexova, lexuar)

 account for
  (jap) llogari, shpjegoj
  mėsoj, shpjegoj, sqaroj


Of course some people who still believe that the Modern Greeks are the descendents of the Ancient ones would pretend that these are coincidences. Some other would pretend that those above must be related with the similarities within the IE languages.

The confusion, the ‘fog’ created from Byzantine Orthodoxy and its numerosly artificially elaborated language: the Modern Greek, based only on some scholastic concepts(reflected in the language also), ‘covered’ by ‘divine mystery’ is temporary. Even the diabolic artificial incorporation of the Ancient Greek words in the body of the Modern Greek language has not ‘escaped’ not seen by the public attention. The truth prevails after all always.    

The falsification of the inscriptions in the ""Greek"" Corpus of the Epigraphy.

Searchable Greek Inscriptions

A Scholarly Tool in Progress

The Packard Humanities Institute

Project Centers

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Project History

It is out any doubt not SIMIA LEKISKOI but FIMIA XIYNEPON(FIMIA HYJNERON)= The child deifies


                            The child is deified, let it be for the good.



Our modern understanding of "nationality” is a complex one and it is no room to be applied on the people of antiquity. However we will follow a simple rule: Every person is borned with a nationality. This rule also is valid for the people who in Classical Era were called Hellenes. We will start right here, Classical Era. It has been widely accepted that the classical Hellenes were not an uniform body of people, many nationalities were included within the “nation” called Helenes.

Among other many nationalities it has been two mayor distinct groups:


  1. Pelasgians(which were not proper Hellenes), a pre-Hellenic people which include:

a.    Ionians

b.    Athenians

c.     Aeolians

d.    Islanders


  1. Helenes

            a. Dorians


The Dorians (Spartans-Lacademonians) have been always considered alien people by Athenians-Ionians-Achaeans, even during classical or Hellenistic period.


Thukydides 1.102

"The Lakedaimonians... afraid of the Athenians, and regarding them even as A NON-RELATED RACE...


They were considered such foreigners, that they were not even allowed to put step inside the temples of the Pelasgians(““Helenic temples””) Gods in Athene and Ionia.


Herodotus Book 1: Clio

"Lacedemonian stranger, go back and enter not into the temple, for it is not lawful for Dorians to pass in hither." He said: "Woman, I am not a Dorian, but an Achaian." So then, paying no attention to the ominous speech, he made his attempt and then was expelled again with the Lacedemonians;




1. Let’s have a look at the pelasgians first


Herodotus, Polymnia Book 7

a. The Ionians furnished a hundred ships, and were armed like the Greeks. Now these Ionians, during the time that they dwelt in the Peloponnese and inhabited the land now called Achaea (which wasbefore the arrival of Danaus and Xuthus in the Peloponnese), were called, according to the Greek account, Aegialean Pelasgi, ; but afterwards, from Ion the son of Xuthus, they were called Ionians.


Herodotus Urania 8 pg 9

b. The Athenians, when the region which is now called Greece was held by the Pelasgi, were Pelasgians, and bore the name of Cranaans; but under their king Cecrops, they were called Cecropidae.


Herodotus, Polymnia Book 7

c. The Aeolians furnished sixty ships, and were equipped in the Grecian fashion. They too were anciently called Pelasgians, as the Greeks declare.


Herodotus, Polymnia Book 7

d. The Islanders furnished seventeen ships, and wore arms like the Greeks. They too were a Pelasgian race, who in later times took the, name of Ionians for the same reason me reason as those who inhabited the twelve cities founded from Athens.


2. Lets look at the Helenes


Herodotus, Clio Book 1

56…[2]. And inquiring he found that the Lacedemonians and the Athenians had the pre-eminence, the first of the Dorian and the others of the Ionian race. For these were the most eminent races in ancient time, the second being a Pelasgian and the first a Hellenic race: and the one never migrated from its place in any direction, while the other was very exceedingly given to wanderings;



56. [2] στορων δ ερισκε Λακεδαιμονους κα θηναους προχοντας τος μν το Δωρικο γνεος τος δ το ωνικο. τατα γρ ν τ προκεκριμνα, ἐόντα τ ρχαον τ μν Πελασγικν τ δ λληνικν θνος. κα τ μν οδαμ κω ξεχρησε, τ δ πολυπλνητον κρτα.

Under the authority of Herodotus, its obvious, that among all those people who inhabited “Hellas”, only the Dorians were originally Hellenes, and the others were not 

So, everything happening in Hellas before Dorian invasion, must not be attributed to Hellenes but to another race: THE PELASGIANS.

The Hellenes must not enjoy the historical credit which belong to Pelasgians.


Now lets see when did happen the Dorian invasion, which is in right thought the arrival of Helenes.


PAUSANIAS, Description of Greece 4.3.1

After the conclusion of the Trojan war and the death of Nestor after his return home, the Dorian expedition and return of the Heracleidae, which took place two generations later, drove the descendants of Nestor from Messenia. This has already formed a part of my account of Tisamenus.


So the arrival of proper HELENES(Greeks=Dorians) happened two generations later the TROJAN WAR. In right thought, it has been no Helenes participating the Trojan WAR.

After this 'shocking' statement, rightly we should ask:

Who has been fighting against the Troians?

Its obvious that there it has been the Pelasgians who raised the big expedition against the Troians, under the command of Agamemnon.

And the confirmation for that comes from Homerus himself, commented by the famous Athenian writter Thucydites when he speaks about the name of Hellenes:


THUCYDITES/History of the Peloponnesian War Book I

Before the Trojan war there is no indication of any common action in Hellas, nor indeed of the universal prevalence of the name; on the contrary, before the time of Helen, son of Deucalion, no such appellation existed, but the country went by the names of the different tribes, in particular of the Pelasgian. It was not till Hellen and his sons grew strong in Phthiotis, and were invited as allies into the other cities, that one by one they gradually acquired from the connection the name of Hellenes; though a long time elapsed before that name could fasten itself upon all. The best proof of this is furnished by Homer. Born long after the Trojan War, he nowhere calls all of them by that name, nor indeed any of them except the followers of Achilles from Phthiotis, who were the original Hellenes: in his poems they are called Danaans, Argives, and Achaeans. He does not even use the term barbarian, probably because the Hellenes had not yet been marked off from the rest of the world by one distinctive appellation.



What are Danaans, Argives, and Achaeans?

These are the same Pelasgians people, originated from the king Dannaus, who came from Egypt and was the brother of Aegyptus. He expelled the Ionians(Herodotus Polymnia Book 9) who were the original Pelasgians, from their native land ACHAIA. He was ruling over the land called Aachia and Argolide, and his capital city was Argos and/or Mycene.



The Pelasgians of Egypt differ somehow from the Pelasgians of Greece (Ionians) who are the original Pelasgians and their original home was the coast of IONIAN Sea which includes also Peloponnesus .

The Ionians got their name from the Ionian Sea, which in Albanian is DETI JONE and includes the following gulfs:

Herodotus, Polymnia IX-94.... Now these Ionians, during the time that they dwelt in the Peloponnese and inhabited the land now called Achaea (which wasbefore the arrival of Danaus and Xuthus in the Peloponnese), were called, according to the Greek account, Aegialean Pelasgi, or "Pelasgi of the Sea-shore"; but afterwards, from Ion the son of Xuthus, they were called Ionians.

94. [1] Ἴωνες δὲ ἑκατὸν νέας παρείχοντο ἐσκευασμένοι ὡς Ἕλληνες. Ἴωνες δὲ ὅσον μὲν χρόνον ἐν Πελοποννήσῳ οἴκεον τὴν νῦν καλεομένην Ἀχαιίην, καὶ πρὶν ἢ Δαναόν τε καὶ Ξοῦθον ἀπικέσθαι ἐς Πελοπόννησον, ὡς Ἕλληνες λέγουσι, ἐκαλέοντο Πελασγοὶ Αἰγιαλέες, ἐπὶ δὲ Ἴωνος τοῦ Ξούθου Ἴωνες.


The Ionians are the Pelasgi of the Sea-shore, Ionian-Seacoast.

The myth of the eponym of the Ionian Sea:

The eponym of the Ionian Sea (whose name was more often, particularly by Aeschylus, attributed to Io's voyage; previously the Ionian Gulf was thought to have been called the sea of Cronus and Rhea). Ionius was the son of King Adrias of Illyria who gave his name to the Adriatic. Ionius was also said to have been a son of Dyrrhachus of the town of Dyrrhachium (modern Durrės). When Dyrrhachus was attacked by his own brothers, Heracles, came to his aid, but in the fight the hero killed his ally's son by mistake. The corpse was cast into the sea, which thereafter was called the Ionian sea.

The Etymology

Deti Jon (Greek Ιóνιo Πέλαγoς, Italian Mar Ionio)


In Albanian Deti JONE means OUR SEA


Harta e  Detit Adriatik dhe Detit Jon



English (2 entries.)
  Shqip (2 hyrje.)
  jonė/ynė , tonė



Now lets return to the Pelasgians again.


AESCHYLUS The Suppliants, Part V

For that, take heart and answer without fear.
I am
Pelasgus, ruler of this land,
Child of Palaichthon, whom the earth brought forth;
And, rightly named from me, the race who reap
This country's harvests are Pelasgian called.


Argives are the citizens of Argos who changed the name to Dannaoi according to an order given from Dannaus, their king:



STRABO 008.006.009

The acropolis of the Argives is said to have been founded by Danaüs, who is reputed to have surpassed so much those who reigned in this region before him that, according to Euripides,"throughout Greece he laid down a law that all people hitherto named Pelasgians should be called Danaans." {358} 




What are the Hellenes mentioned by Homer then?


Homer, The Iliad 2.681
“Now all those who dwelt about Pelasgian Argos, those who lived by Alos and Alope and at Trakhis, thos who held Phthia and Hellas the land of fair women, who were called Myrmidones and
Hellenes and Akhaians, of all these and their fifty ships the lord was Achilleus.”


These Hellenes are just a very small Pelasgian tribe who joined the Myrmidons of Achiles in the expedition against Troy.


What are the Myrmidons(milmigones) of Achilles?

They are the inhabitant of the small island Aegina and according the myth they were converted from ants to humans by Zeus himself.


STRABO 008.006.016


It is said that the Aeginetans were called Myrmidons,--not as the myth has it, because, when a great famine occurred, the ants {385} became human beings in answer to a prayer of Aeacus, but because they excavated the earth after the manner of ants and spread the soil over the rocks, so as to have ground to till, and because they lived in the dugouts, refraining from the use of soil for bricks.


Aeacus was the father of Pelleus and Tellamon who were respectively the fathers of legendary heroes Achiles and Aiax. So Achiles was not originally from Thessaly (like wrongly is beleived or propaganded) but from a small island AEGINA, beside Peloponessus.




Now let’s return back to Hellenes again. What did happen to them?

What was their original nationality?

We already explained that only the Dorians which in mythology took the name from Dorus(“son” of Helenus) are the proper Helenes. However , the truth is that before invading Pelasgia(Greece) their king was Aegimus (pronounced AGIM-us which in albanian means sunrise)


English (Only one entry.)

  Shqip (Vetėm njė hyrje.)


  agim {m}



He had three sons λλυς, Παμφλυς, and Δυμανάὶ who gave their name to the three Dorian tribes.


The three main DORIAN tribes
λλας κα Παμφλους κα Δυμαντας,
or HYLLYNOI), Pamphyloi, and Dymanatai


It is out of dispute that the MOST important tribe was HYLLINOI which in reality represents the descendents of HERACLES himself, the most legendary “””””Greek”””””” hero.



Hyllus was the son of Heracles and either Deianira or Melite. Heracles had helped Aegimius in his battle with the Lapiths, and in gratitude Aegimius offered him a third of his land. Heracles declined the offer, and to show his gratitude, Aegimius adopted Hyllus after Heracles died. As an adult Hyllus killed both Sthenelus, king of Mycenae, and his son, Eurystheus, king of Argos. He and Aegimius' other two sons, Pamphylus and Dymas, gave their names to the three Dorian tribes: the Pamphylii, the Dymanes, and the Hylles.

λλυς  [(h)yll-us]----------in albanian language means YLLI=the star


English (Only one entry.)

  Shqip (Vetėm njė hyrje.)

  star (noun)

  yll {m} (tr. shq. ylli, shumės yje)



Where these HERACLIDES(Hyllinoi or Bulliones) originated from??




The answer comes from Pseudoskylax, the famous ""Greek"" historian 6-4 century BC who has given a very beautiful description of the people inhabiting Europe.



PSEUDOSKYLAX The description of EUROPE 22


22….The barbarians called Lotus-eaters are the following: Hierastamnai, Boulinoi (Hyllinoi), coterminous with Boulinoi the Hylloi. And these say Hyllos son of Herakles settled them: and they are barbarians. And they occupy a peninsula a little lesser than the Peloponnese. And Boulinoi are an Illyric nation.


Therefore the descendents of Heracles and the MAIN DORIAN TRIBE was an ILLYRIC TRIBE.


This means that the PROPER HELENES are an ILLYRIC NATION.

What happened to the Pelasgians then?

STRABO 009.001.007
But after the return of the Heracleidae and the partitioning of the country, it came to pass that many of the former inhabitants were driven out of their homelands into Attica by the Heracleidae and the Dorians who came back with them.


That means that the Pelasgians of Greece (Dannaoi) were subdued by these Dorians(an Illyric people). Also it means that these Dorians who gave to Hellas(former Pelasgia) and the whole world the splendor of classical-“Hellenistic” period were just an ILLYRIC people who are called from Herodotus a branch of the Pelasgians:


Herodotus (I, 57-58.)
“The Hellenic race has never, since its first origin, changed its speech. This at least seems evident to me.
It was a branch of the Pelasgic, which separated from the main body, and at first was scanty in numbers and of little power; but it gradually spread and increased to a multitude of nations, chiefly by the voluntary entrance into its ranks of numerous tribes of barbarians.


These “Helenes” who originated from Illyria and were an Illyric tribe, was a branch of Pelasgians, therefore the Illyro-Epirotic tribes were Pelasgians too. It brings us to a very important conclusion:


It has never happened a “”Greek”” migration, and the so called Hellenes was not any distinct indo-europian mayor tribe, but just an Pellasgo-Illyrian one.


These Helleno-Pelasgians of the continent subdued the Argivo-Dannaoi-Pelasgians of Hellas, retaliating for the Troyans who were their brothers (originally from Dardania-an Illyric nation). They took vengeance for the Phrygian too (another nation related to Illyrians, originally the BRYGI, an Illyric tribe) who suffered the destruction of their land Phrygia(allie of Troyans) by Egypto-Dannaoi Pelasgians of Agamemnon.

There is nothing “Hellenic” in Ancient Hellas, it is just a mythical name borrowed from the "darkness" of antiquity, to create a new nation the modern Hellenes.


 Posted by ZEUS10 13.March.2008


The language of classical-helenic-romaic-byzantine Greece deserves a special attention in the philological studies. It has been the first known language of literature and like every language is believed to have borrowed a large amount of words from its substrate .

What is a substrate of a language?

The academical definition for it is the following:


In linguistics, a substratum (lat. sub: under + stratum: layer → lower layer) is a language which influences another one while that second language supplants it. The term is also used of substrate interference, i.e. the influence exerted by the substratum language on the supplanting language .


So under-stratum (language) is believed to be a foundation for another language. There are  two words in Albanian language which define the foundation: “themel” and “shtrat”.

The word ‘shtrat’ is not a borrowing from Latin because it describes many other words in Albanian like  shtrat (bed), shtrat (base), strategy(shtrat), shtrat lumi (river basement) etc. Now let return to the “”greek””” language subtrate, the goal of this article. 


Let see how is denoted it from Enciclopedia Britanica

The term Pre-Greek substrate refers to an unknown language that is conjectured to have been spoken in prehistoric Greece before the settlement of Greek-speakers in the area. It is believed by some linguists that Greek took over a large number of words and proper names from such a language (its substrate), because a large proportion of the vocabulary of Greek does not have demonstrable Indo-European roots.

Non-Indo-European words

Including the following:

1.Terms of insult and pejorative vocabulary

2. Maritime terms, words for the sea, shipping (eg thalassa)

3. Words relating to Mediterranean agriculture, (eg olives)

4.Words regarding rulers, given by the populace (eg Tyranos)


5.Building technology (eg Kapital)


6.Words relating to Non-Indo-European divinities (eg Athena)


The reason why the substrate of  ‘’“greek”” is  called ‘unknown language’ by the scholars is unknown itself. Most likely because the anglo-german scholars are not familiar with a language spoken very close to the territory now called Greece, whose name is Albania.

Let see in details the above words if them having any equivalent (structurally-grammatically) in Albanian

thalassa---------------------------thellesi (deepness)

olives------------------------------ullinj or ollij


Kapital----------------------------kapet(achives, catches)

Athena----------------------------e thene (said, speech)


So only based on the example given by Enc. Brit. were found easily some words in Albanian (not necessary the same meaning).

So this ‘unknown’ language which served as a substrate is not so unknown afterall.

Someone could ask: Maybe this unknown non-indoeuropian language is the substrate for Albanian language too?

This is a good question, but to explain why it doesn't apply for Albanian  we will pick one of the words above and try to explain it ethymologically.


English                        Greek (modern)                               Albanian

olive                                   ελιά (elia)                                    ulli or olli

                                                                                        ulli {m} (def. ulliri, plur. ullinj)


English (3 entries.)
  Shqip (3 hyrje.)
  ulli {m} (tr. shq. ulliri, shumės ullinj)
  olive oil
  vaj ulliri


In Koine (Greek)                             English                           Albanian

δρς λαα( DRUS ELAIA)              Tree, olive tree                          dru ulliri 




1500 years old olive tree Ithaca (Greece)


It is well-known the fact that olives are used mostly for their oil. The oil is one of the most fondamental food’s elements expecially in common use from mediterranien people.

In albanian, the noun ulli(or olli) is formed from the prefix ‘u’ which is a noun-forming prefix and ‘lli’ which is in fact the root of the word and derives from the verb Lyej=Liej(south dialect)=ngjyej=DIP(eng) which has as its primitive form the verb LY still alive in popular language.

From this verb derives the word LYRE which means fat but in Albania is also used to describe the OIL especially the food oil like ULLYRI  oil.

So that means this word and logically every word from the so called unknown language is from an alive language and people.


The language of Albanians is left aside, it is strangly "forgotten" in philological studies by the linguists. This is a big mistake, done from many generations of scholars. It has not started now, but since 2-3 centuries ago, from the German scholars who ‘pruned’ the history of language and culture of Europe from other ethnic groupes, pampering only “”Greeks”” and “”Romans””. to that extend that even when some elegant artifact (similar or the same to those found in Greece or Italy) are being found in the territory where was ancient Illyria,  they always suggest: "It must have been worked by a Greek/Roman artist" . Epiroto-Illyrians are only pirates afterall .

Fortunately there are still arround open-minded scholars who don’t hesitate to work on the right direction far from ethnical-political interests.


It is worthy to mention that Giuliano Bonfante (August 6, 1904 - September 9, 2005 in Rome) was an Italian linguistics scholar and expert on the language of the Etruscans and other Italic peoples. He was professor of linguistics at the University of Turin.




Ahh you stubborn ancient "Greeks"....

O Ptolemy:

Where did you find the Albanian QELESHE?

What about you O Ahiles? Is your QELESHE one of your Albanian HILE?

And you Udhise ? Qe humbe udhes, did you find the way back home?


What about you small NANO? Still small like when your NANA gave birth to you?

Even you Hermes with an Albanian qeleshe??

O Heqtor , are you wearing MALESOR PANTS

O Hektor O Hektor, You like the Albanian clothes so much ... you cant leave them aside even before you die?

Perhaps you traveled in time and borrowed them from SCANDERBEG.

or perhaps from these guys here:

who know how to fight and to ..



Albanian language and the PIE.

Where did Albanian language originate from?
The most accepted theory between the linguists that Albanian belongs to the IE languages which have a common origin: the Proto-IE language although the Albanian has all the specifics of a Pre-IE.
What is the PIE language (proto-Indo-European)?
The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. The scientists go even further; they believe are capable to reconstruct the words of this language:
Ex: eleutherian1623, from Gk. eleutherios “like a free man, noble-minded, frank, liberal,” lit. “freeing, delivering, releaser,” title of Zeus as protector of political freedom, from eleutheria “freedom,” from PIE *leu-dheros.

The idea which most of European languages have the same ancestor looks right to me. The real problem begins when they say: from PIE *leu-dheros. This part is where the speculation begins. To reconstruct the primitive PIE form is simply impossible because no one knows the universal rules to go back to this hypothetical language. Further more words like this “*leu-dheros don’t show the characteristics of a primitive language with its monosyllabic appearance where the whole word consist in a short vowel (a, e, i, o, y) after or between respectively one or two (usually simple) consonants. What we see is a word built of diphthongs and complex consonants, semi-vowels etc. Contrary to expected sometime in these “proto-IE” words we can even notice consonant clusters which totally disagrees with the main idea of a monosyllabic-primitive language.
Is this PIE language the source for the Albanian too?
I would bring one example.
For the verb “ndjek”= follow, exists a synonym the verb “pėrzė” ex.: pėrzė dike me vrap, usually this word is used in the contexts: following smb for (intending) catching him/her. In Albanian the verb “pėrzė” is a formation of two other words: pėrzė(pėr+zė)=for+ catch. That means that this is not a loan from other languages but it is a word formed during the time within the Albanian language and not borrowed from other languages. It is formed from two other elementary Albanian words one of them is a verb itself (zė) which we don’t meet in other languages at all , making it a pure Albanian word. However, strangely the Albanian word “pėrzė” has a cognate in English “pursue” which has exactly the same meaning like in Albanian “follow smb intending to catch him/her”. It has been explained above that this verb in albanian is neither a borrowing from other IE languages nor descended from a “mother” PIE word .
How come this word is present in English language?
Did the Albanians invade England?
Did the British invade Albania?
Did both “pėrzė” and “pursue” come from the same PIE root?
No (explained above).
Did the word enter in English language through another IE language?
It has only two possible answers:
1. Albanian is the PIE itself.
2. Albanian is very close to the PIE
Most likely the first answer is wrong because it’s a lot of arguments against. The second answer is the only right possible because among other arguments is that of isolated and mountainous life of Albanian tribes who preserved their language in its archaic form better than any other race. Most of all the Albanian language better than any other language obeys this universal rule:
The root of every primitive verb is a monosyllable, consisting of a short vowel between two (usually simple) consonants.
Examples: di, ha, pi, lė, rri, loz, kap, hap, marr, fus, shoh, gjuj, leh, rrah, bėj, kam, etc etc. As result these monosyllable albanian~PIE verbs is met in the words roots of every language starting from Ancient Greek finishing to English:

Few examples:

Let————————————–le tė
See————————————–shoh, sy

Being onomatopoeic some of the above verbs are the true roots of the selected English words. The same thing could be said for the ancient greek. There is no doubt that the root of: βίος —-lifeis the Albanian verb “mbij”=to sprout with its primitive form “bi” still alive in south dialects. From the same verb comes the Albanian place adverb “mbi”=over which explain very well where the life(usually a plant) appears after it sprouts.

The Albanian language takes a very special position among IE languages. Its position enjoys the privileges of a PIE language and could be used in many scientific jobs to avoid nonsense like this: PIE *leu-dheros .Another interesting thing is the development of two main independent dialects in the language. Gheg is a possible source of tosk but all indications are that this last one was split from the proto-IE itself before the other major Europian languages being split, meanwhile the gheg conserved all the characteristics of the PIE. It means that Gheg is older than Tosk but both are dialects of one unique language : the Albanian language. They represent gheg and tosk clans which in antiquity were called respectively: Illyrians and Epiriotes both the variations of the prehistoric race : the Albanians.


The made-up Greek “language” since old times.

Why is the Ancient Greek(Attic dialect)  very different from Koine Greek, to that extent that you not being very wrong might call them two different languages? The scholars have always been wandering about this issue.

 Everything started as a human intervetion after an order of Ptolemy II, the emperor. He thought would be a good idea to create an universal language for the entire empire, whose center was Alexandria.

Many languages and dialects were spoken within the empire  and Alexandria in Egypt was already the cultural center of the Empire in about 281 BC. Ptolemy II (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, 309 BC-246 BC) wanted an universal language to be used for diplomatic , literature, science and religious purposes. Thus he assigned Aristeas, an Athenian scholar, to create the grammar of the new language, one that not only all Greeks, but all inhabitants of the Empire would be able to speak. Thus, Aristeas used the Attic dialect as basis for the new language. Aristeas and the scholars who were assisting him trimmed the language a little, eliminated the Attic idiosyncrasies and added words as well as grammatical and syntactical rules mainly from the Doric, Ionic, and Aeolic dialects. The Spartan Doric, however, was excluded from it (see Tsakonian further down).

So, they standardized THE Hellenic language, called Koine or Common which was very different from the spoken one at that point that some scholars call it new artificial language.

The language was far from perfect. First it was an written language, created on paper without the means to be spoken. Greeks and non-Greeks encountered difficulties reading it since there was no way to separate words, sentences and paragraphs and especially because they encountered too many made-up words and grammatical rules. In addition, they were unable to express their feelings and the right intonation. During that time, Greek was a melodic language, even more melodic than Italian is today.
The system of paragraphs, sentences, and some symbols like ~. ;`’! , were the result of continuous improvement and enhancement of the language with the contribution of many Greek scholars from all over the World.

There were a few alphabets employed by various Hellenic cities or states, and these alphabets included letters specific to the sounds of their particular dialect. There were two main categories, the Eastern and the Western alphabets. The first official alphabet omitted all letters not in use any longer ( sampi, qoppa, digamma also known as stigma in Greek numbering) and it presented a 24-letter alphabet for the new Koinē language. However, the inclusion and use of small letters took place over a period of many centuries after the standardization of Koinē.

After the new language was completed with its symbols, the Jews of Egypt felt that it was an opportunity for them to translate their sacred books into Greek since it was the language that the Jews of Diaspora spoke. So on the island of Pharos, by Alexandria’s seaport, 72 Jewish rabbis were secluded and isolated as they translated their sacred books (Torah, Nevi’im, Ketuvim, etc.) from Aramaic and Hebrew to the Koinē Greek, the newly created language. This is known as the Septuagint translation. The Koinē evolved and in about two to three centuries it became the language that Biblical scholars call Biblical Greek. In fact, only those who have studied the Attic dialect can understand the difference between the Septuagint Greek and the Greek of the New Testament.
Although the Koinē was officially in use, common folk in general continued to speak their own dialect and here and there one can sense the insertion of elements of the Attic dialect in various documents such as the New Testament.
The Gospel according to St. John and the Revelation are written in perfect Attic. The other three Synoptic Gospels were written in Koinē with the insertion of some Semitic grammatical concepts (i.e. the Hebrew genitive) and invented words (i.e. epiousios).

The outcome is that today in Greece there are many variations in speech; of course not to the point of people not understanding each other, but still there is divergence in the Greek spoken tongue.

Today the Hellenic language accepts only one dialect, the Tsakonian, which is a direct development of the ancient Doric dialect of Sparta.

The Demotic is a development of mostly the Doric sound system, whereas the Katharevousa is a made-up language based on the Classical Attic. Presently, the speech in various areas of Greece somehow differs from each other and sometimes an untrained ear might have difficulty understanding the local speech. Pontic and Cypriot Greek are very good examples to the unacquainted ear. Tsakonian dialect, the descendant of the Spartan Doric, is almost impossible to understand if one is not familiar with it.